“Let us work together to replace despair with HOPE, fear with human SECURITY and humiliation with DIGNITY”

Arab Christians Biographies Who Contributed to Arab Islamic Civilization

The Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies in Amman, Jordan has published a book entitled, “Collection of Renowned Arab Christians during the Arab Islamic Civilization” that gives a comprehensive list and synopsis of prominent Arab Christians who have made significant contributions to the Arab Islamic civilization from the beginning of Islam until the end of the Ottoman succession.

Prepared and collected by: Hassan Al-Batoosh and Ala’ Al- Rashik
Edited by: Marwan Hamdan
Publishing House: Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies – Amman, Jordan
English Translation by: Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation

(1894 – 1943 AD = 1312 – 1362 AH)

Isbir ibn Mansour ibn Shahin Ghrayyeb was a Maronite author, journalist, and politician. He was born in Damour, Mount Lebanon. He received his education at the National Colleague in Choueifat. In 1912, he immigrated to Argentina, where he founded “Al-Shams” (The Sun) weekly newspaper in 1915. In 1925, he returned to Lebanon and published “Al-Shams” as a monthly newspaper. He conducted many press tours in Brazil, Argentina, the United States and several Arab countries. In 1930, he founded a short-lived sociopolitical party known as “The Free Party.” He published many articles and research works in magazines and newspapers. Among his remnants are “Sacred Jerusalem,” “The Big Hearts,” “Religion and Intolerance” and “To My One and Only Kamal.”

(Died in 1795 AD = 1210 AH)

Irmia (Girmias) Karmeh was a Roman Catholic translator and author. He was born in Hums, Syria. He served as the Archbishop of Damascus in 1753, becoming the hand of the Patriarch Al-Dahhan and later Patriarch Johar. He was known for contacting the Roman Church and defending the Catholic Church. He worked as a notary and translator. Among his remnants are “The Case of some of the Religious, Canonical, and Literature Objections,” “The Sermons” and the Arabization of Saint Augustine’s speeches and articles (130 speeches and 50 articles).

(1800 – 1883 AD = 1215 – 1300 AH)

Arsanius ibn Yousef ibn Ibrahim Al-Fakhouri was a Maronite priest, author and poet. He was born in Baabda and died in Ghazir in Lebanon. He received his education at Al-Rumia School and then at Ain Waraka School, where he studied Arabic, Italian, Syriac, philosophy, logic, theology, law and civil law. He later became a teacher at the same school. In 1826, he was consecrated a priest.  Prince Bashir Shihab II handed him the state of judiciary over Lebanon, a post from which he resigned in 1856. He then devoted himself to writing until his sight grew weaker, leaving him blind for the final 17 years of his life. Among his remnants are “The Golden Scale in Arabic Poetry,” “Arabic Prosody and Rhymes,” “Explaining Al-Mutanabbi’s Poetry,” “Explaining Archbishop Girmanous Farahat’s Poetry,” “Spring’s Flowers of Fine Art,” “Syriac Grammar” and “The History of Mount Lebanon’s Accidents from 1840 Onwards”. He also has a collection of poems praising Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary, as well as several sermons.

(Died in 1933 AD = 1352 AH)

Arsanius Hadda was a Roman Orthodox Lebanese Archbishop of Antioch and a journalist. In 1898, he founded “Al-Manar” newspaper in Beirut, turned it into a magazine in 1903, and moved it to Lattakia in 1921. He also served as the Archbishop of Lattakia between 1928 and 1933.

(1885 – 1964 AD = 1303 – 1384 AH)

Adib Michael Lahhoud was a Maronite Lebanese author, teacher, poet, writer and theatrical artist. He was born in Amsheet near Byblos (Jubayl) and received his elementary education at Al-Hikma School (School of Wisdom) in Beirut. He worked in theater as a script writer and actor. He later became headmaster of Al-Hikma School and worked as a teacher in other schools. He assisted in the editing of “Al-Hikma” newspaper. He was the founder and the president of the National Institution in Amsheet. Among his remnants are “The French Reading Degrees” (in three parts), “Arab Civilization in Jahiliyyah and in Islam,” “Lebanese Morals and Mores,” “The Amsheet Pedigree, From the 17th Generation until Today,” “Withered Lily,” “Lebanon on Stage” (a play about WWI  in Lebanon), “The Great Martyr Barbara” (play), “The Lost Girl” (play), “Belle of Andalusia” (play), “Alia Francis of Marjeyoun” (play) and “The Two Lawyers” (TV show).

Adib Michael Tayyar was a Syrian journalist and writer. He was born in Safita and received his bachelor’s degree in French from the LAIC institute in Beirut in 1927. He worked as a secretary for the governor of Lattakia. He then resigned and founded “Al-Jadid” (The New) magazine in Beirut. In 1938, he worked as an Arabic literature teacher in the Secondary School of Lattakia and in Safita until 1960. He was a member of National Union during the Egyptian Syrian Union and became a member of the Parliament in Cairo prior to returning to teaching. He published his articles in “Harp,” a Syrian magazine, “Alif Ba’” (Alphabetical Order) newspaper, Lebanese newspaper “Al-Nida’” (The Call) and “Mirror of the West” magazine. Among his remnants is a political prose piece titled “Advantages of Discrimination.”

(1925 – 1984 AD = 1343 – 1404 AH)

Adib ibn Milhem ibn Ibrahim Al-Bustani was a Maronite author and journalist. He was born in the village of Dibdiyeh in the Chouf District in Lebanon. He studied at Ain Waraqa School and received his diploma in journalism from the School of Journalism in Cairo. He worked as a teacher at several schools throughout Lebanon as well as at the Orthodox Secondary School in Hums, Syria. He edited and headed many newspapers, including “Hums.” He published numerous articles and research works in newspapers such as the “Echo of the South” Lebanese newspaper and the “Accidents” paper of Aleppo. Among his remnants are “In the Vastness of Poetry” and “Archbishop Abifanous Za’id.”

(1898 – 1928 AD = 1316 – 1347 AD)

Adib Mudher was a Lebanese thinker and one of the poets of the Symbolism art movement. He was born in the village of Mhaidse near Bikfaya, Lebanon. He studied at the School of Shikh Ibrahim Munther and then moved to the Friars School, where he studied French literature. He joined the American University of Beirut, where he mastered the English language and specialized in English literature. Among his remnants are “Hymn of the Universe,” “Immortality” and “Sundries of Wishes.”

(1856 – 1885 AD = 1272 – 1302 AH)

Adib ibn Abdullah ibn Ishaq was an Armenian Catholic Syrian poet, journalist and translator. He was born in Damascus and died in Lebanon. He studied in French and in Arabic and fell in love with writing, grammar and poetry when he was only 10. He moved to Beirut upon completing his higher studies in both languages. He worked as a writer at the Department of Customs prior to retiring and moving to Alexandria, where he helped Salim Al-Naqqash in adapting Arabic novels for the stage and later founded “Al-Mahrousa” (The Guarded) newspaper in 1879.  In 1877, he moved to Cairo, where he founded the “Egypt” weekly newspaper. In 1878, he returned to Alexandria and founded another daily newspaper called “Trading” with the help of Salim Al-Naqqash. In 1880, he closed both publications and moved to Paris, where he founded the “Cairo of Egypt” Arabic newspaper. He became sick and returned to Beirut, then to Egypt to work as the head of the Office of Knowledge for Writing and Translation in Cairo, then as a writer in Parliament. Among his remnants are “The Odds of Agreements,” “Egypt’s Translations of This Era,” “Charlemagne” (translated from French), “Andromache” (translated from French) and “The Parisian Beauty.” His articles were collected by Girgis Michael Nahhas in a book titled “Al-Durar” (Pearls).

(1905 – 1997 AD = 1322 – 1418 AH)

Adib Abbasi was a poet and author from the town of Al-Husn in Jordan. He studied in Nazareth and joined “Dar Al-Mu’alimeen” in Jerusalem to learn the art of teaching. He then continued his higher studies at the American University in Beirut. He worked as an employee prior to becoming a teacher, a position he used to move between Palestine and Jordan. He excelled in science and literature as well as in writing poetry in Arabic and in English. He published his poems and articles in “Al-Muqtataf” (The Excerption), “Al-Hilal” (The Crescent), and “Al-Thakafa” (The Culture) magazines in Egypt. Among his remnants are “The Return of Luqman” (animal fables in philosophy), “Einstein in Scale,” “The Great Plot of Silence” and “The Right Way.”

(1912 – 1986 AD = 1330 – 1406 AH)

Adib ibn Ibrahim ibn Nasif Al-Haddad, known as Abu Milhem, was an author, theatrical artist, and oral poet (zajal). He was born in Alia, Mount Lebanon, where he received his education. He worked as a teacher before dedicating himself to theatrical art. He participated in and wrote numerous plays, acting in many of his works, such as “Yusuf Bik Karam,” “Omar bin Al-Khattab” and “Broken Wings.” He worked at different governmental jobs, as well as in Lebanese radio and TV stations. He was twice elected the head of Lebanese Artist Syndicate. Among his remnants are “Zajaliat Abu Milhem” (a collection of his oral poems) and several plays, including “Love in Al-Dayaa,” “A Mother in Law and a Daughter in Law,” “My Tough Aunt” and “Laila, The Mountain’s Girl.”

(1878 – 1948 AD = 1295 – 1368 AH)

Edward ibn Nicola Elias Murqus was a writer, poet, journalist and translator. He was a member of the Arab League in Damascus, where he was born and educated before leaving public school in favor of homeschooling. Before he became a journalist, he spent a lengthy stint as an educator, and as a reporter, he edited and published articles in various newspaper and magazines in Syria, Egypt and Lebanon. In 1910, he founded “Al-Muntakhab” (The Elected), a weekly newspaper in Lattakia prior to WWI. Nine years later, in 1919, he founded weekly magazine “Al-Nahda Al-Jadida” (The New Uprising). He published much of his research in the “Academy of Sciences” and was an editor for the newspapers “Al-Mokattam” and “Al-Mahroosa.” Among his remnants are “Arabic Literature: What It Offers and What It Should Offer,” “Localization from French,” “Diwan Edward Murqus” (a collection of his poetry and writings), “History of the Great War” (translated from French), “In Favor of the Arabic Language” and other novels and three schoolbooks.

(1903 – 1966 AD = 1321 – 1386 AH)

Edwar Salim Atiyyeh was a Lebanese author, writer and historian. He was born in Alexandria and received his education from the Victoria College in Alexandria and Oxforf, England. He taught history at the Gordon Memorial College of the University of Khartoum between 1926 and 1927. He worked as an employee of the public relations office of the Sudanese government from 1927 until 1945, when he moved to London to work as a secretary to the Arab Bureau between 1945 and 1950. In 1956, he worked as a press adviser in the Iraqi Embassy. Among his remnants are “An Arab Tells his Story,” “The Thin Line,” “Black Vanguard,” “Lebanon Paradise,” “The Arabs,” “The Crime of Julian Masters” and “The Eagle Flies from England.” All of his novels were originally written in English.

(1901 – 1979 AD = 1319 – 1399 AH)

Edward ibn Khalil ibn Milhem Al-Bustani was a Lebanese jurist, poet, translator and journalist from Deir Al-Qamar, Lebanon. He received his education from the School of Aintoura and continued his higher studies at the Institute of Law in Beirut. He was able to become a translator at the Official Translations and Publications Department due to his proficient knowledge of both Arabic and French, then moving on to become the head of the Cabinet Office. His articles and research were published in many magazines and newspapers. Among his remnants are “The Grave and The Hope” (novel), “The Translation’s Curricula,” “Adjudications” (with the help of Khalil Taqieddin), “Foreign Studies in the History of Lebanon,” “3 Years in Egypt and the Levant,” “The Golden Book of the Armies of the Levant” (translation) and an unprinted collection of poems.

(Died in 1923 AD = 1341 AH)

Edward Elias was a Greek Orthodox Syrian writer and voyager. He was born and raised in Syria, from where he immigrated to Egypt. He worked as a government employee and was later assigned the position of Inspector to the Ministry of Interior. He travelled to Europe and the Americas, documenting his journey and the history of the countries he visited. Among his remnants are “Scenes from Europe and America” and “Scenes from Kingdoms,” printed in 1910, where he described Europe, the United States of America, Tunisia, Algeria, the Balkans (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece), Syria and Lebanon.

(1913 – 1992 AD = 1331 – 1412 AH)

Edward ibn Ibrahim Hanin was Lebanese author, lawyer and politician born in the village of Kfarshima on the coast of Beirut. He studied at Saint Joseph’s University, where he received his degree in law. He worked in the fields of literature and science, contributed writings to various newspapers and joined the “People of the Pen” association. He was elected Secretary General to the National Liberal Party. In 1957, he was elected to represent the Matn district in Lebanon, a position from which he moved on to become the Minister of Labor in 1961 and 1964. Among his remnants are “The National Bloc,” which describes the Mount Lebanon parliamentary election of 1947, “In the Footsteps of Democracy” and “This is How They Ruled in Our Name.”

(Born in 1892 AD = 1310 AH)

Edmon ibn Abdullah Bleibil was a Maronite Lebanese author, historian and pharmacist born in Bharsaf, Lebanon. He received his education in local schools in his village and later joined the School of Pharmacy at Saint Joseph’s University in 1914. He travelled to France, where he mastered the art of teaching. He worked as an educator in different schools throughout Beirut and eventually settled there. Among his remnants are “Great Bikfaya’s Calendar and the History of its Capture,” “The General History of Lebanon,” “Comrade Michael Haddad” and “Bikfaya’s Guide.”

George bin Elias Abyad was a renowned actor of Arab theater. Born in Beirut, Lebanon, Abyad received his education at Collège des Frères and continued his education at the School of Wisdom, where he got his first taste of the theater. Though he spent much of his youth working in Beirut, he eventaully travelled to Egypt and joined an amateur theater team. He later received a scholarship to study in France with the help of the Khediv Abbas Hilmi. Upon his return, Abyad created a theatrical group, produced several international plays and taught the art of diction at the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts. He travelled throughout several Arab countries with his band and the Egyptian Ministry of Culture later made a statue in his honor at the Higher Institute of Arts. Abyad was the first to produce a spoken film in Egypt in 1932 and is considered one of the founders of the Higher Institute of Representation. Among his notable plays include Louis XI of France, The King’s Clown, Sultan Saladin, and The Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Jundi Abd El-Malek was an Egyptian Copt jurist and author from Shibin Al Kawm in Al-Minufiyah, Egypt. He graduated from the College of Law in Cairo and held several positions including head of the Court of Cassation, followed by Counselor of Cassation and Repeal, and later Minister of Supply. Among his notable works include Majmo’at Al-Mabadi’ Al-Jina’iya (The Collection of Criminal Principles) and Criminal Encyclopedia.

George Hanna was a doctor and writer from Al-Shuifat, Lebanon. After pursuing his education at Souq Al-Gharb High School, he went on to study medicine at Evangelical Syrian College in Beirut (what later became the American University in Beirut). He joined the Ottoman Army as a medic soldier during World War I and was captured by the British army in the Battle of Jericho, though he was eventually released under the condition that he serve in the Egyptian Army. After his service, Hanna returned to his hometown before traveling to Paris to specialize in obstetrics and gynecology, and he later went on to found a hospital for obstetrics in Beirut. He was a member of the Lebanese Medical Institution, the Global Peace Movement, and president of the Lebanese-Soviet Friendship Society. He was published in several newspapers including the British Mandate newspaper Asia under the alias of “Ibn Sina.” Among his notable works include Infertility and Human Strain, Albania: Land of the Eagles, From Occupation to Independence, The Lebanese, Back from Moscow, The Way to Salvation, Conversation with the Arab Woman, The Story of Man, A Journey into a New World, A Woman is a Body and a Soul, The Reality of the Arab World, In Moscow Again and Social Awareness.

George bin Habib Antonius Haddad was a researcher, historian, translator, manager and politician from the town of Deir El Qamar in Lebanon. Born in Alexandria, Egypt, he studied at the Victoria College in Alexandria and then pursued higher studies at Cambridge University in England. He worked at the Municipality of Alexandria and joined the civil service in Palestine after World War I, where he became a leader in the Minister of Education and the British Administration. In 1927, he was summoned by the British delegation to serve as a mediator and translator during the negotiations between the British government and King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  He also served as a translator for Mr. Charles Richard Crane in his interview with Ibn Saud in 1931. In 1939, Antonius was elected by the Arab Higher Committee of Palestine as a secretary to the Palestinian Arab delegation at the Round Table Conference in London. He also visited the United States and held several lectures about Arab history. Among his notable works includes a book entitled The Arab Awakening, which was written in English and later translated into Arabic.

George, or Jurji, bin Antonios bin Girges bin Michali Yanni was an author, translator, historian, journalist and member of the Arab Academy in Damascus. Born in Tripoli, he published his articles in Al-Jinan (The Gardens) and participated in publishing Al-Mabaheth (Sections) magazine in Tripoli in 1908. He published several articles in many renowned Arabic newspapers, the oldest of which are said to have been published in Syria and Egypt. A notorious bibliophile, Yanni was a known book collector and translated several of them, including The History of Modern Urbanization, The History of the Franco-Prussian War or French-German War, The History of Syria, The Wonders of the Sea and its Mercantile Tonnage, The History of Alexander II of Russia, and The Lady with the White Ribbon.

George or Jorji Harfoush was a writer and a journalist from Beirut, Lebanon. He received his education at the Jesuit High School in Beruit and later worked as an employee at the Ottoman Diplomatic Service as a secretary for the Ottoman Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Sophia as well as a representative to its commission in Paris. He worked as a journalist at various newspapers and went on to found three newspapers in Istanbul publishing in Turkish, Arabic and French, including Kalimat Al-Haq (The Word of Truth) newspaper in 1908. He also founded Al-I’lanaat (Advertisements) newspaper in 1912 and Journal De Beirut in 1914. Harfoush was appointed member of the Syrian Conference in Beirut under the rule of King Faisal, for which he traveled to Damascus and left his newspaper under the guardianship of Samih Khoury and Farid Kassab. He was offered to rule the Archipelago Islands after declaration of the Ottoman Constitution in 1908, though he refused. Among his notable remnants include seven newspapers and two printing houses.

Jamil bin Habib Al-Khoury Saliba was a Syrian philosopher, author, teacher, lawyer, linguist, journalist, and translator. Born in the town of Qaraoun in the Beqaa Valley, he studied in Damascus and graduated from the Arabic Preparatory School. He enrolled at the Sorbonne University in Paris majoring in education, literature and law, and also received his PhD in philosophy before later moving back to Damascus. He was appointed teacher of philosophy at his alma mater, the Arabic Preparatory School, and later became head of high school education at the Ministry of Education, head of the Teachers College, head of the Committee of Education and general secretary for the Syrian Ministry of Education. He also served as dean of the college of education at Damascus University and then president of the Lebanese University in 1958. He was elected to be a member of the International Committee for the Publication and Translation of Human Masterpieces representing UNESCO and also became a member of the International Committee for Educational Sciences and the Board of Directors at the Arabic Encyclopedia. In 1933 he published Al-Thakafa (The Culture) magazine and the Ministry of Education’s Al-Tarbiya wa Al-Ta’lim (Upbringing and Education) magazine. Among his notable writings include The Courses of Modern Criticism, The History of Arabic Philosophy, The Philosophical Lexicon, The Future of Education in the Levant, From Fiction to Reality and Intellectual Orientations in the Levant and its Effect in Modern Literature.

Jamil bin Ibrahim bin No’man Al-Ma’louf was an author, journalist and translator. Born in Zahle, Lebanon, he received his elementary education at the Episcopal School, the Salima School of the Capuchin Fathers and the School of Wisdom in Beirut before ultimately enrolling in the Sultan School in Beirut and the Al-Maktab Al-Rashidi, a small teaching divan in the province of Astana. He knew several languages and worked as an editor in New York for a magazine, which was run by his uncle Yousef No’man. Despite his extensive traveling, he later returned to Lebanon just prior to World War I. He was summoned for trial by the Office of War and, despite hiding, was later caught. He was not sound in mind and was later transferred to Al-Asfouria mental hospital, and then back to his home in Zahleprior to the end of the war. Among his notable works include New Turkey and Human Rights, The Effect of Flowers on Nature, The Political Will of Mehmed Fuad Pasha, The Law of Arab Press and History and Traditions.

Jiries Al-Khoury Ayyoub was a writer and poet from Kufur Yassin, Palestine. After receiving his elementary education, he joined the Zion International School Of English and the English Youth College. He served as a teacher of Arabic at St. George’s School in Jerusalem, as headmaster of Akko’s high school, as an Arabic teacher at Al-Rashidiya College in Akko, and as an Arabic teacher at Schmidt School for girls in Jerusalem. Jirjes’ writings appeared in several Palestinian magazines and newspapers including Modern Valuables, Teachers College, and The Wisdom. In addition to his writings, Ayyoub was also known for having memorized passages of the holy Quran, as well as for his famed satirical poetry. Among his notable works include a collection of children’s literature, an Arabic grammar book and a collection of poems.

Jirmanos Mo’akkad was a writer, journalist and archbishop of the Greek Catholics. Born in Damascus, Syria, he became a monk in Dir Al-Mokhalles (Monastery of the Savior) near Sidon. In 1889, Mo’akkad served as bishop of his congregation in Baalbek and later became archbishop of Latakia. He later resigned in order to dedicate himself to writing and preaching, and in 1903 established the organization Paul’s co-senders while also publishing his writings in Al-Masarra (Goodwill) magazine, which he helped found.  Among his notable works include Interpretation of the Gospels, The Living Words, The Way to Righteousness, Chants and Spiritual Hymns, and The Belle of Beirut and The Journey of the Greek Philosopher, which contains the biography of Christ and a demonstration of the Bible.

Georgi bin Habib Zaydan was a historian, journalist, linguist, and novelist. After receiving his elementary education in his native Beirut, Lebanon, he went on to join the Evangelical Syrian College in Beirut to study medicine before ultimately leaving Beirut for Egypt before obtaining his degree. In addition to serving as the editor-in-chief of Al-Zaman (The Time) magazine, he also utilized his fluency in English, Latin, Hebrew and Syriac by escorting the Intelligence Agency as a translator on its campaign in Sudan. Zaydan returned to Beirut to teach Hebrew and Syriac at the Arab Academy before ultimately returning to Egypt to work as the editor of Al-Moktataf (The Excerpt) magazine, of which he later became president. The final magazine he worked for was Al-Hilal (The Crescent), after which he devoted himself almost exclusively to novel writing and later became known as the founder of the historical novel in modern history. Among his memorable works include The History of the Arabic Language in Literature, The History of Islamic Urbanization, Modern Physiognomy, Linguistic Philosophy and Arabic Pronunciations, The Modern History of Egypt, The History of Freemasonry, The History of Greece and the Romans, The History of Arabs before Islam, as well as 23 Islamic historical novels including Quraish’s Virgin, Al-Hajjaj ibin Yusuf, The Conquest of Andalusia, Salah Eddin, and The Ottomans’ Coup.

Girges bin Yousef bin Rafael bin Girges bin Michael bin Hanna Shalhat was a Syriac Catholic writer, poet, journalist, translator, teacher, Patriarch of Anitoch of the Syriac Catholics and a member of the Arab Academy in Damascus. Born in Aleppo, Girges received his education in Aintoura, Lebanon and later went on to open a school for Syriac Catholics called Madraset Al-Tarakki (The School of Advancement). In 1910, he founded Al-Warqaa magazine, in which he published most of his work during World War II. Among his notable writings are The Gist of Industry, Science, and Religion, The Cosmos and The Sanctuary or Fine Arts and The Church, The Cosmos, Golden Plates of Aleppo’s Proverbs, and Between the Golden Necklace in France and Arabs.

Girges Kanaan was an writer, poet, journalist and historian from the town of Kaftoun near the Batroun district of Lebanon. He received part of his elementary education in Saint John’s School in Duma, Syria and continued his studies at both the American School for Boys in Tripoli and the Evangelical College in Hums. He taught at several schools throughout Lebanon, Syria and Iraq and was known by many as Al-Nather, or the headmaster. In addition to publishing several articles in Hums newspaper in 1928, he also contributed work to Niazi Karam’s Al-Nashi’a (The Young Adults) magazine. Among his notable works include The Arabic Language and its Literature, Al-Buhturi, Muthakkarat (Diaries) and many others.

Girges bin Francis bin Youhanna bin Francis bin Shukri bin Luis bin Ibrahim, known as Abu Manash, was a Maronite bishop, writer, researcher and scholar. Born in Aleppo, Syria, Manash was elected member of the Arab Academy in Damascus. He undertook scientific field trips in search for ancient books and manuscripts, and was even a guardian of the Maronite library in Aleppo. He published a number of religious, historical and literature articles in several magazines including Al-Mathriq (The Orient), Risalat Al-Salam (A Message of Peace) in Beirut and Al-Mojamma’ Al-‘ilmi Al-Arabi (Arab Academy) in Damascus. Among his notable works include The Calendar of the Maronite Printing House, The Piece of Art in 3 Maronite Academies, The Book of Traditions, A Letter to Maximus the Wise, and many others.

Jirasemos, or Georgy, bin Ispirideon bin Nicola bin Masarrah was a Greek bishop, writer and journalist. Born in Lattakia, Masarrah received a PhD in theology.  In the field of journalism, Masarrah helped found Al-Hadiya (The Gift) newspaper for the Christian Teaching Organization in 1922 and contributed to Al-Mahabba (Love) newspaper. He was appointed Archbishop of Beirut and Archbishop of the Syrian Orthodox in Alexandria, Egypt, and later went on to found The Orthodox Charity in Cairo, which still exists today. Among his notable charitable projects include the restoration of Saint George Orthodox Cathedral in Beirut, as well as the establishment of church market and hospital. Among his notable works include The Lights in Secrets and The History of Split, as well as translations including Leaflet of the Synod of Constantinople, which he translated from Greek to Arabic, and Ishaaq Al-Kanadi (Isaac, the Canadian), which he translated from Arabic to Greek.

Jbour As’ad Abdel Nour was a writer and researcher born in Bhamdoun, Lebanon. After graduating from Saint Joseph’s University in Beirut, Nour went on to receive his PhD from Sorbonne University in Paris. He later returned to Lebanon and worked as a lecturer at Saint Joseph’s University before becoming a Dean of the College of Education, and later the Dean to Faculties of Arts in several Lebanese universities. He shined in the fields of academic literature studies and was especially known for his work in writing dictionaries. Among his notable works include Arabic-French dictionary Al-Manhal, Al-Jawari (The Maids), Sufism in the Arab World, The Literature Dictionary, Blinks into the Philosophy of Arabs, and Arabic-French dictionary Abdel Nour’s Dictionary.

Gibran bin Khalil bin Michael bin Saed Gibran, known simply as Khalil Gibran, was a Lebanese writer, poet, novelist and painter. Born in Damascus, Gibran is considered one of the genius contemporary writers in the United States. After completing his studies in Beirut, Lebanon, Gibran immigrated to the United States with relatives in 1895 and settled in Boston. He later returned to Beirut and studied at Al-Hikmah (Wisdom) School, after which he traveled to Paris to receive the artist prize in photography in 1908. Gibran returned to the states in 1920 and lived in New York, where he contributed to the establishment of the New York Pen League. His paintings were accepted by the Official International Exhibitions in France and he was later elected as a member of the English Association of Photographers. In the Arab world, Gibran’s writings — which became best sellers after Shakespeare and Laozi — earned him the reputation of being a literary and political rebel. Gibran’s writings appeared in magazines including  Al-Mohajir (The Immigrant) and Mir’at Al-Gharb (Mirror of the West), and he also worked with Nasib Arida to publish Al-Fonoun (The Arts) magazine.  Among his notable literary works include Tears and Laughter, Nymphs of the Valley, Spirits Rebellious, Broken Wings and The Storm, all of which were translated from Arabic to English. Among his famous English writings include The Prophet, The Madman, Sand and Foam, Jesus, The Son of Man, and The Garden of the Prophet. All of Gibran’s Arabic Literature can be found in a collection entitled The Complete Works of Gibran Khalil Gibran, collected by Mikha’il Na’ima.

Tomas Habib was a stage actor born in Baghdad, Iraq in 1918. In 1940, he founded a theatre group called Anwar Al-Fan (The Lights of Art) and went on to perform in many other theater groups, including Firqet Ansar Al-Tamtheel Al-Faniya (Supporters of Artistic Representation), Al-Firqa Al-Arabiya Al-Faniya (The Arab Artistic Group) and Firqit Babil Al-Faniya (The Babylon Artistic Group). In addition to theatre, Habib also worked in radio and television, through which he presented several Iraqi and foreign plays. Habib is considered one of the first to introduce a realistic folk form to theatre performances.

Jubra’il Abu Sa’da was a Catholic Archbishop, researcher, narrator and reviewer from Palestine. Born in the city of Beit Sahour near Bethlehem, Jibra’il studied philosophy at St. Hannah Seminary (later called Al-Salahiya College). He joined the priesthood for four years and was later awarded a degree in philosophy and theology before officially becaming a priest himself. He became a teacher at Al-Salahiya College in Jerusalem, where he taught Arabic and Greek literature, and was then appointed Assistant to the General Patriarchal Vicar in the Jerusalemite Chair in Jerusalem by General Patriarch and then Archimandrite. During that time, Abu Sa’da established places of worship, schools and dispensaries. In 1948, Abu Sa’da was appointed Archbishop of Jerusalem. He was known as an eloquent orator and published many articles in both Al-Masarra and Risalat Al-Mokhalasiya magazine. Among his notable works include Qumbis fil Mizan, Hafith Ibrahim: The Great Egyptian Poet, Khalil Mutran: Shair Al-Quṭrayn, The Literary Renaissance in Lebanon and a ministerial novel entitled Why not you?

Tuma Jibrael Hindu was a doctor and researcher from the city of Zakho in Dahuk, Iraq. He received his elementary education in Mosul, graduated from Dar al-Mualimeen and became a teacher. He later joined the faculty of medicine and served as a doctor in several hospitals throughout Iraq. After his retirement, Hindu worked as an expert at the World Health Organization in Cairo to fight Malaria. He was a member of several local and international medical institutions, including the head of the Sayedat al-Najat (Salvation Lady) organization in Baghdad. Hindu laid down the scientific principles of the fight against endemic diseases and was an important medical teacher in his field.

Jabra Nicola was a Palestinian journalist, trade unionist and translator. Born in Jaffa, Nicola is considered one of the first Palestinian Marxists and the first to write about the labor and trade movement in Palestine. Among his notable works include Professional or Trade Union Organization, In the Jewish World, a translation of Lenin, Abul ʿAla Al-Maʿarri, a translation of The Arab Orient, a translation of The Kreutzer Sonata by Leo Tolstoy and a translation of Arabs and the Historical Development in the Middle East. He died in Lebanon in 1974.

Jack bin Philip Tajir was a Syrian-Egyptian historian, translator and writer from Cairo, Egypt. Fluent in both Arabic and French, he received his elementary education at the College des Freres and later went on to work as a librarian of a private library in Qasr Abdeen (Abdeen Palace). After publishing his renowned book Aqbat wa Musilmoon (Copts and Muslims) in 1952, Tajir was mysteriously murdered. Among his notable works include Harakit Al-Tarjama bi Masr khilal Al-Karn Al-Tasi’ Ashar (The Translation Movement in Egypt throughout the 19th Century), Isma’il Kama Tosaweroho Al-Watha’iq Al-Rasmiya (Isma’il Portrayal in Official Documents) and Maktabat Al-Kahira (Cairo’s Libraries), the latter of which he wrote in French.

Jubra’il bin Bishara bin Khalil Tikla was a Lebanese author, journalist and one of the owners of Al-Ahram Newspaper. Born in Cairo, Jubra’il received his education at Al-Yasu’iya School. His father, one of the founders of Al-Ahram, died when Jubra’il was young and his mother took care of the newspaper until he was able to take over in 1912. He dedicated his time to managing and expanding the business, as well as perfecting the printing process. Tikla travelled to Paris, where he studied economic and political science before receiving a degree in law. In addition to Arabic, he attained fluency in French, English and Italian. He was a member of several contribution companies, clubs, as well as  a member of the Egyptian Parliament. Jubra’il was later elected as a syndicate of the Egyptian journalists. He died in Cairo in 1943.

Tikran Basha Al-Armani was an Armenian writer and politician. Born and raised in Cairo, he pursued his studies in Italy and then returned to Egypt where he became the personal writer and secretary of Nubar Pasha, the first Prime Minister of Egypt. This was during the rule of Isma’il Pasha (1863 – 1879 AD), also known as Isma’il the Magnificent. Al-Armani later served as secretary to the board of supervisors, foreign agent, as well as foreign supervisor in many ministries.

Jubra’il bin Wade’ Sa’adeh was an author, translator, historian, musician and journalist from Latakia, Syria. He moved to Beirut, where he pursued his education at the French College of Law and later went on to work in trade before ultimately being appointed Latakia’s Honorary Consul to Greece in 1956. He was also elected president of the Institutes of Higher Education’s Alumni Club and served as a member of the management committee of the music club. In addition, Jubra’il was one of the founders of the National Orthodox Church in Latakia, the Arab Writers Union and the People’s Committee for the Arts and Literature. He was also an accomplished writer, publishing articles in French, Italian, German and Lebanese magazines. Among his notable works include his plays When The Sun Sets, The Disobedient Will Never Be Forgotten, as well as folk songs Latakia Province and When Latakia Sings. He also translated several works from Arabic into French, including National Museum Guide and a story by Mahmoud Edwan entitled Without Offspring. His French writings include Ugarit and The History of Latakia.

Jubra’il (Jubran) bin Michael Futeh was a writer and academic from Nazareth, Palestine. He taught some of the best writers in literature of that time, including Mikha’il Na’ima, Abd el-Maseeh Haddad, Anton Ballan, Ni’ma Al-Sabbagh and Salim Qub’ain. In addition to teaching at the Russian Seminary in Nazareth, Futeh worked as an Arabic teacher at the Arab Orthodox Charitable Society in Beirut, Lebanon. Among his notable works include a book in Arabic entitled Explanation of Arabic Prosody and Rhymes, a play entitled Between Angels and Hell and several translations including Merope and Doctor Fraud.

Jubra’il Suleima Jbour was a researcher, historian, university teacher and author from Syria. Born in the town of Al-Qaryatayn between Homs and Damascus, he pursued his primary studies in Syria before graduating from the American University in Beirut with a degree in science. He then moved to Egypt, where he taught at the Faculty of Arts at the Cairo University. He received his master degree in literature and a PhD in philosophy from Princeton University, followed by another PhD in Eastern history from Burlington University. Jubra’il worked as head of the English department at Homs National College and as an Arabic language teacher, and later as head of the Arabic department at the American University in Beirut. Among his notable publications include Arab Life throughout the first 100 years after the Prophet’s death, Umar Ibn Abi Rabi’ah, Kings and Poets, Literary Criticism and Bedouins and the Desert.

Tuma Al-Labboudi was a Lebanese priest, author and head of the Lebanese Order.  Among his notable works includes The Biography of Abdallah Kara’ali, detailing the life of the Lebanese Order founder and the Archbishop of Beirut, who died in 1742 AD. Al-Labboudi added a letter to the biography before sending it to King Louis XV, and the biography was later published by Father Anton Ribat. He died in Rome in 1786.

Tuma Al-Kufurtabi was a Maronite bishop, writer, translator and philosopher from Kufurtab in northern Syria. Tuma was considered to be one of the staunchest defenders of the Maronite teachings against its antagonists, as demonstrated by the aggressive letters exchanged between him and the Patriarch of Antioch. Among his notable works are Al-Makalat Al-Ashara (The Ten Articles), which defends the Maronite teachings, as well as a translation of Youhanna Maron’s Al-Huda wa Al-Namous (The Right Path and the Law), a collection of articles about dogmas and denominations.

Tuma bin Suleiman was an Orthodox writer and historian from Syria. Among his notable works is a book entitled Tarikh Halab (Aleppo’s History) collected from the chronicles of Ibn al-Bitriq and the Imam Abi Yasir, as well as a summary of the chronicles of Zain Eddin Ahmad bin Ali, known as Al-Sha’ofi, which detailed the history of Aleppo and other provinces in northern Syria.

Afram Al-Shammas, otherwise known as Afram the Verger, was a theologian and archaeologist. Among his notable works is a book describing Sinai’s stage and buildings. Written copies of his book can be found in Aleppo, the Vatican, Paris and Beirut.

Al-Batriq Abu Yahya served as one of the translators of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansour (754-775 AD). The Caliph ordered him to translate old scientific books into Arabic, among which were medical books by Greek Hippocrates and Galen.

Anisa bint Nicola bin Mousa bin Girges bin Antonios Saiba’a was a doctor, writer and translator from Tripoli, Syria. Known as the first female to obtain a degree in medicine in the Orient, she completed her studies at the London School for Women in London, England as well as in Edinburgh, Scotland. She settled in Egypt, where she produced several works about medicine, including several articles which were published in Al-Moktataf (The Excerpt) magazine. Her works also include a translation of the novel KessatCoreen (Coreen’s Story), which she translated from English into Arabic. She died in Cairo, Egypt in 1944.

Anisa bint Saed bin Abdullah Al-Khoury Al-Shartoni was a writer from Beirut, Lebanon. She studied at the Nazareth Sisters School, the Visit Sisters School in Aintora and at the Al-Taqadom School in Beirut. Her writings were published in several magazines, including Al-Rawda, Al-Morakeb and Al-Moqtataf. Among her famous writings include Nafhat Al-Wardatayni, which was written with the help of her sister, Afifa Al-Shartoni.

Anton Asaf was a Lebanese priest and translator. Among his notable works include the Arabization of one of two volumes of a book entitled Al-Maktabah Al-Roheya (The Spiritual Library) by Mary Augustinus and Rawdat Al-Wa’eth (The Preacher’s Garden) by Saint Alphonsus Legouri, both of which were originally written in Latin and Italian.

Astaat is considered one of the most moderate translators of his time. Among his most important works that he translated into Arabic include nine articles from the books Oribasius, Al-Kawnwa Al-Fasad (The Cosmos and Corruption) and a part of Aristatus’ Ilahiat (Divines).

As’ad Milhem Thiab Rahhal was a doctor and journalist from Marj-Ayoun, Lebanon. In addition to his numerous contributions in science and medicine, he also founded Al-Marj newspaper in Marj-Ayoun with Daniel Za’rab in 1909, as well as JabalAmel newspaper.

Augustin Aliazar Al-Maroni Al-Halabi was a priest and writer. His wrote a philosophy book entitled Kholasat Al-Ma’refa fi Akhas Kadaya Al-Falsafa (Knowledge Summary of the most specialized philosophy cases), which was printed in Beirut in 1886, as well as Al-Adilla Al-Nathareya fi Wihdat Al-Nafs Al-Bashareya (Theoretical Evidence to the unity of the Human Soul), which was written with the help of his brother, Pastor Bulous. He also has a collection of poems entitled Lam Yabka Minho Ella Al-Kalil (Not much left of it).

Augustin bin Gabrial bin George bin Michael bin Ibrahim Al-Sakakini was a translator in a medical school in Egypt. Throughout his career, he lived and worked in France, Tunisia and Egypt. Among his notable translation works is Al-Ajala Al-Tibiyah fema la boda minho lehokama’ Al-Jehadiya by Clot Bek, which he translated from French to Arabic.

Boghous Noubar Nounarian was an Armenian engineer and author from Constantinople. He pursued his studies in Switzerland and France, where he eventually became an engineer. He later moved to Egypt and worked in the government, in which time he held several positions including manager of the Egyptian railroad. He contributed to Egypt’s growth by aiding in the establishment of private companies such as the Alexandria tramway network. His writings were published in both French and Arabic.

Boghous Yousifian was an Armenian translator and financial and customs manager in Egypt. He lived during the rule of Mohammed Ali Basha (1805 – 1848 AD) and served as his private secretary and translator. He later went on to become Egypt’s financial manager, as well as its foreign affairs and trade director. He participated in the negotiations with the Europeans in 1839 and is considered one of Egypt’s most influential figures.

Butrous Al-Bustani was an author and bishop. He served as an Archbishop of the Maronites in Lebanon and was also a student of the Ain Waraka Maronite school. Al-Bustani was well-versed in doctrinal and religious sciences and was known for his teachings in law and ordinances. He was appointed by Patriarch Bulous Massad to write his secrets until he was appointed bishop in 1866, at which time he went to Rome. Among his famous works include the book Tarikh Al-Jazzar (The Butcher’s History).

Butrous Elias Kamel Al-Modawwar was a Catholic bishop,  journalist and author from Acre, Palestine. He received his primary education at the Patriarchate School in Beirut, Lebanon and went on to pursue his higher education at the French College of Law in Cairo, Egypt. Al-Modawwar began his career working for the Egyptian government, but later went on to join the Basilian Monasticism in Harissa, Lebanon. He became a priest in 1938, a Patriarchal Agent in Cairo in 1941, a Suffragan to the 9th Cyril of Alexandria in 1943 and later became an assistant to the patriarch Maximus the Fourth. In the realm of journalism, he contributed in releasing Al-Masarra magazine in Egypt. His notable works include a book entitled Le Ajl El-Etihad (For the Unity).

Bahor Labib Iqladious was an archeologist from Cairo, Egypt. He pursued his studies at the University of Berlin in 1934, where he received his PhD in archeology. He later headed the UNESCO International Committee to study philosophy. His notable works include Lamhat min Al-Dirasat Al-Maserya (Glimpses of the Egyptian Studies) and Tashri’ Haour Mohib (The Edict of Horemheb).

Butrous Hanna was an Egyptian author and journalist. In addition to serving as a teacher in one of the Princely schools in Egypt, he also worked as an editor of Al-Rawi (The Narrator) newspaper in Asyut. His writings were published in Al-Noor Al-Tawfiqi newspaper. Among his notable writings include his two-part work entitled Nitham Al-Ta’lim (The Educational System), which was published in 1896. The first part detail the nature of the mind, senses and the nature of the females, while the second part compared the most renowned educational systems in the famous kingdoms of the East and the West.

Balsam bint Abd Al-Malik was a Coptic writer and a journalist. Born and raised in Tanta, Egypt, she received her education at the Catholic Missions’ Schools. Fluent in both French and Arabic, Al-Malik worked at the Ministry of Education, participated in Egypt’s Women’s Uprising of the 1920s and wrote extensively on the subject of solving the problems of Arab Society. In 1920, she published a magazine in Cairo entitled Al-Mar’a Al-Masriya (The Egyptian Woman).

Egyptian Coptic Barsom Al-Arian bin Soma bin Al-Tabban was a writer, monk and was even considered a saint. He served as a writer for Queen Shajar Al-Durr (1249-1257 AD), the wife of Izz al-Din Aybak. He also founded the state of the Mamluks and became one of the first of the Mamluk sultans. Al-Arian became a monk after moving to Shahran Monastery outside Cairo, where cold, heat and temperance were his companions. He remained there until his death in 1317.

Bakhtisho’ hailed from the Syriac Bakhtisho’ Family, which practiced medicine in Baghdad for nearly four decades. He worked as a doctor for the Abbasid Calpih Al-Motaki Le-Amr El-Lah (1134-1160 AD), serving among other doctors including Ali bin Al-Rahiba, Anosh and Thabit bin Sinan bin Thabit.

Anba Basilios was the Patriarch of Coptic Orthodox in Jerusalem, Palestine. He was born in the Town of Al-Kasr wa Al-Sayyad in Qena, Egypt, where he received his elementary studies before pursuing a life of monasticism and becoming a Robe Bearer in Egypt’s Saint Antonios Monastery. He served as a priest in 1840 and later became the guardian of the Monastery. In 1847, he was promoted to the Episcopal rank and received Archbishopric of Jerusalem until he died in Haifa in 1899.

Basios, also known as Basi’os Al-Saqzi, was an author and Bishop of the Greek Orthodox Church in Gaza, Palestine. Among his famous works include Kitab Al-Romooz (The book of Symbols). In fact, Patriarch Macarios (known as Ibn Al-Zaeem) used the book to inspire his own twenty-seven volume book entitled Al-Nahla (The Bee). Basios later immigrated to Russia, where he died in 1678.

Bishara Abd Allah al-Khuri al-Bairuti, also known as al-Akhtal as-Saghir, was a journalist, storyteller and one of Lebanon’s most famous poets in modern era. Born in Beirut, Lebanon, he studied at the 3 Moons School, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese School and the Maronite Wisdom School before attending the College des Freres to study French. In 1908, he founded Al-Bark (Thunderbolt) newspaper, a weekly literature newspaper that eventually become a daily paper after World War I. Through Al-Bark, al-Khuri tackled many social and political issues which reflected the prevailing attitudes of rebellion against the Ottoman authorities at the time. In 1912, he went on to found Sada Al-Bark (The Echo of the Thunderbolt) newspaper. During this time, al-Khuri started affixing the words “al-Akhtal as-Saghir” to his signature, which later became his title. In 1925, he was elected as head of the Lebanese Press Syndicate and in 1946 he served as a technical adviser of the Arabic Language at the Ministry of National Education in Beirut. He also served as a corresponding member of the Arab Academy in Damascus in 1932. Among his famous works include three collection of poems entitled Shi’ir al-Akhtal as-Saghir (al-Akhtal as-Saghir’s Poetry), Al-Watar Al-Jareeh (The Injured Tendon) and Al-Hawa wa Al-Shabab (The Passion and the Youth). He also published Min Bakaya Al-Thakira (From the Remnants of Memory), Bayn Al-Shi’ir wa Al-Siyasa (Between Poetry and Politics) and a famous story entitled Al-Riyal Al-Mozayyaf (The Fake Riyal).

Bishara Abd Allah al-Khuri al-Bairuti, also known as al-Akhtal as-Saghir, was a journalist, storyteller and one of Lebanon’s most famous poets in modern era. Born in Beirut, Lebanon, he studied at the 3 Moons School, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese School and the Maronite Wisdom School before attending the College des Freres to study French. In 1908, he founded Al-Bark (Thunderbolt) newspaper, a weekly literature newspaper that eventually become a daily paper after World War I. Through Al-Bark, al-Khuri tackled many social and political issues which reflected the prevailing attitudes of rebellion against the Ottoman authorities at the time. In 1912, he went on to found Sada Al-Bark (The Echo of the Thunderbolt) newspaper. During this time, al-Khuri started affixing the words “al-Akhtal as-Saghir” to his signature, which later became his title. In 1925, he was elected as head of the Lebanese Press Syndicate and in 1946 he served as a technical adviser of the Arabic Language at the Ministry of National Education in Beirut. He also served as a corresponding member of the Arab Academy in Damascus in 1932. Among his famous works include three collection of poems entitled Shi’ir al-Akhtal as-Saghir (al-Akhtal as-Saghir’s Poetry), Al-Watar Al-Jareeh (The Injured Tendon) and Al-Hawa wa Al-Shabab (The Passion and the Youth). He also published Min Bakaya Al-Thakira (From the Remnants of Memory), Bayn Al-Shi’ir wa Al-Siyasa (Between Poetry and Politics) and a famous story entitled Al-Riyal Al-Mozayyaf (The Fake Riyal).

Bishara Al-Shidiaq was an author, poet and journalist from Lebanon. He traveled to Turkey where he pursued a career in journalism, editing for both Al-Jawa’eb and Al-Basir newspapers. He also published literary, religious and poetic works in Beirut’s Al-Bashir newspaper. In addition to journalism, Al-Shidiaq worked in science, literature and poetry, the latter of which he used to both praise and mourn many of his contemporaries. Among his notable works is a collection of sixty-three pages of poetry from 1888, which can be found in Al-Maktaba Al-Sharkeya (The Eastern Library) in Beirut, Lebanon.

Bishara bin Silwan Nahoul (Abu Nahoul) was an author and translator who lived and studied in Beirut, Lebanon. Among his works include his 1884 book entitled Montakhabat Alsina’a fi Fan Al-Zira’a (Selected Techniques in the Art of Agriculture), which he translated in two volumes. The first volume details the techniques of the art of agriculture while explaining the essence of dust, metal bodies, air and water. The second volume discusses the techniques of poultry farming and ranching, its diseases and treatments. 

Bitro Bauly Al-Bairuti was a Lebanese writer and journalist. He served as the manager and editor of Al-Morakeb (The Watchman) newspaper and was known for his controversial literary publications, many of which provoked the resentment of Ottoman rulers. He was exiled to Izmir in Turkey before returning to Beirut, where he was hanged in 1916.

Elia Jubran Kanaan was a Lebanese doctor and author. His works include Al-Harb wa Mahalikiha (The war and its Perils), which was printed in 1946.

Elia bin Jirji Murakada was a Syrian jurist, journalist and capitalist. He received his education in Al-Tajheez Orthodox School in Damascus, after which he pursued a degree in law. After his studies, Murakada worked in business and paper securities. In 1927, he founded Al Nashra Al-Akareya newspaper, which published in Beirut until 1930. Throughout his career, his writings were published in several Syrian newspapers.

Elia bin Michael Shaghori was a Syrian journalist and jurist. He received his education at the American University in Beirut before joining the faculty of law at Cairo University. Fluent in both English and French, Shaghori worked in journalism and was published in Lebanese newspapers, as well as weekly Damascus magazines. He worked at Al-Ayyam newspaper in Damascus and later then went on to publish Al-Ahad newspaper, which was active from 1939 until 1945. He also published Al-Balad newspaper.

Elia Zakka was a writer and journalist from Haifa, Palestine. He graduated from the Russian Seminar in Nazareth. In 1908, he founded Al-Nafeer Newspaper in Jerusalem, which after World War I moved between the cities of Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa before ceasing publication in 1919. Zakka went on to publish Haifa magazine in 1921 and Haifa newspaper in 1924.

Elias Azar Khoury was a Lebanese journalist. Born in Alexandria, Egypt, he contributed to journalism and was redacted in great newspapers throughout Egypt and Beirut. He also founded a printing house in Alexandria, which was named after him. He died in Alexandria in 1945.

Elias Fadel Girges was a lawyer, politician and a member of the Syrian parliament. He received his elementary education in Homs national college, after which he pursued a degree in law at the Syrian University. He worked as a lawyer in Latakia and was eventually elected to serve as Secretary of the Bar Association and a member of Parliament in 1937. He was also affiliated with National League Action’s Party. However, the French reportedly held a grudge against him for his political and national standings.

Ermya Timothaus Makdisi was a Chaldean bishop, researcher, translator and author from the town of Al-Koush in Mosul, Iraq. He received his education in Iraq’s Christian schools and went on to pursue his higher education at Mar Youhanna Al-Habib (Saint John) Institute. In addition to teaching philosophy and canonical teachings in Rome, he also served as a bishop for Zakhour and its districts. He printed several grammar and linguistic books in the Chaldean language, including The grammar of the Chaldean Language and The grammar of the Aramic Language, as well as other theology books such as The literary theology.

Ibrahim Matar was a writer and translator born in Bethlehem, Palestine. He received his elementary education at the Johann Ludwig Schneller School (also known as Schneller Orphanage) and later joined the Teachers’ Union in Jerusalem. He completed his bachelor’s degree in English Literature at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon before returning to Palestine, where he became a teacher at the Nazareth High School until 1939. He then moved to Jaffa, where he became a teacher of English Literature. After al-Nakba in 1948, Matar left for Beirut where he worked for Al-Nashra magazine, which was issued by the American Mission and the department of “Al-Mash’al” office. In addition to his native tongue, Arabic, Matar was also fluent in German and English. Some of his most notable works include Al-Hayat Al-Methaleya (The Ideal Life), Al-Tarjamah Al-Mukhtarah (The Chosen Translation), Mabady’
Al-Tarjama (Principles of Translation), KawakebwaRuuad (Planets and Spacemen), Makhtotat Al-Bahr Al-Mayet (Dead Sea Scrolls), KessasMn Al-Adab Al-Alami (Tales from the International Literature), Lughz Al-Hayat (The Secret of Life) and Al-Ketab Al-Mukadas fi Al-Lugha Al-Arabiya (The Holy Bible in the Arabic Language).

Ibrahim Matar was a writer and translator born in Bethlehem, Palestine. He received his elementary education at the Johann Ludwig Schneller School (also known as Schneller Orphanage) and later joined the Teachers’ Union in Jerusalem. He completed his bachelor’s degree in English Literature at the American University in Beirut, Lebanon before returning to Palestine, where he became a teacher at the Nazareth High School until 1939. He then moved to Jaffa, where he became a teacher of English Literature. After al-Nakba in 1948, Matar left for Beirut where he worked for Al-Nashra magazine, which was issued by the American Mission and the department of “Al-Mash’al” office. In addition to his native tongue, Arabic, Matar was also fluent in German and English. Some of his most notable works include Al-Hayat Al-Methaleya (The Ideal Life), Al-Tarjamah Al-Mukhtarah (The Chosen Translation), Mabady’ Al-Tarjama (Principles of Translation), KawakebwaRuuad (Planets and Spacemen), Makhtotat Al-Bahr Al-Mayet (Dead Sea Scrolls), KessasMn Al-Adab Al-Alami (Tales from the International Literature), Lughz Al-Hayat (The Secret of Life) and Al-Ketab Al-Mukadas fi Al-Lugha Al-Arabiya (The Holy Bible in the Arabic Language).

Ishaq Al-Nenawi was a Nestorian Bishop and poet. He wrote many works in the Syriac language, three of which were translated into Arabic, including Majmo’at Miamer Fi Al-Sir Al-Nuskeya (The Collection of Miamer in Asceticism), Al-Tib Al-Ruhani (Spiritual Medicine) and Rasa’el Miamer (Miamer’s Letters).
After leaving the episcopate, he chose to adopt an ascetic lifestyle and became a monk. He died in the Ruban Shabour Monastery in Iraq.

Ishaq Al-Nenawi was a Nestorian Bishop and poet. He wrote many works in the Syriac language, three of which were translated into Arabic, including Majmo’at Miamer Fi Al-Sir Al-Nuskeya (The Collection of Miamer in Asceticism), Al-Tib Al-Ruhani (Spiritual Medicine) and Rasa’el Miamer (Miamer’s Letters). After leaving the episcopate, he chose to adopt an ascetic lifestyle and became a monk. He died in the Ruban Shabour Monastery in Iraq.

Istifan Al-Shimali was a Maronite writer and priest from the town of Daroun in Kasrawan, Lebanon. Among his notable works are Lamhet Al-Ainwa Lamhet Al-Shimalieen (Glimpse of the Eye and of the Shimalieen) and two volumes about preaching written jointly with his brother, Jermanous (1828-1895), and Yousef Bin Al-Hasan Bin Yacoub.

Paul Ghalioungui was an endocrinologist, professor of medicine and faculty member at Ain Shams University in Egypt. He lead many Egyptian medical organizations and served as a member of a number of foreign organizations. His most notable works include Abdul Latif Al-Baghdadi, Doctor of the 6th Century AH, Ibn Al-Nafis: From the Forefront of the Scientific Epoch in Medicine, Eat… Don’t Eat, Hormones between Medicine and Law and The Encyclopedia of Islamic Science and Scholars.

Paulina Hassoun was a writer and journalist from Jordan. In 1922, she moved with her family to Baghdad, Iraq, where she published Laila magazine — Iraq’s first magazine for women. Hassoun was considered to be Iraq’s first female journalist. She later went on to serve as the headmaster of a girls schools in Baghdad before moving back to Jordan, where she passed away in 1969.

Peter Yousef Johnny Sha’ia was a politician and author from Baghdad, Iraq. He pursued his higher education in Politics, Philosophy and Political Economy in Bulgaria. He was appointed editor of The Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party‘s newspaper Al-Thawra (The Revolution) and later went on to work at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as an ambassador to a number of the European countries. Many of his articles were published in both newspapers and magazines, though he is best known for his book entitled Latin America – Continent of Famine and Revolution, which he published in 1973.

Tadrous bin Al-Hasan was a Christian teacher. He served as the Minister Asad al-Dawla Salih ibn Mirdas of Aleppo (1026 – 1029 AD). He is known to have been crucified.

Tathi bin Istin was a writer and chief of the Writers Bureau. He lived during the early periods of Islam under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, during which time he worked as the private writer of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham bin Abd El-Malik bin Marwan (723 – 743 AD). The Caliph later appointed him to the position bureau chief for the city of Homs.

Tathouri Al-Antaki Al-Malaki was a doctor, philosopher and expert in natural sciences, engineering, mathematics and astronomy from Jerusalem, Palestine. Throughout his life, he perfected some of the sciences of the early scholars of Antakia. Renowned doctor Yacoub bin Sikallan delivered the eulogy at his funeral.

Taudosious, otherwise known as Thaudosious, was a Patriarch, doctor and author from Tikrit, Iraq. He became a monk in Tur Abdin and after mastering medical science was elected Patriarch of Antakia in 887 AD. Among his notable works include a collection of 112 Pythagorean aphorisms translated from Greek into Aramaic, including footnotes in Arabic. He also wrote an article in medicine, though it was never fully recovered.

Taudrus, or Tiodorious the Chalcedonian Christian, was a writer and prominent Melkite. He held senior level positions in Alexandria and Mairout, and was later appointed to be in charge of Egypt’s Marine business.

Tawfiq bin Fath-Allah Al-Sabbagh was a musician and author from Aleppo, Syria. Born Elias, he received his elementary education at the Greek Orthodox School and later went on to work at its church as an Intoner, or someone who sings hymns. He later changed his name to Tawfiq Al-Sabbagh and moved to Cairo. However, he later returned to Damascus where he established a musical school and a club. In Damascus, he began teaching music in schools as well as on the radio station of Aleppo. He has several music tracks, including his most famous one entitled Awatef (Emotions). Al-Sabbagh also published several books, including Ta’lim Al-Fonoun (Teaching Arts) and Majmo’at Kita’ Mosiqiya Sharqiya (A collection of Eastern Music Tracks), the latter of which holds all his composed tracks as well as tracks of other Arab and Turkish composers. His publications also include Al-Angham Al-Shaqiya (Eastern Melodies), Ta’lim Al-Oud (Oud ”Lute” Education) and Al-Dalil Al-Mosiqi Al-Aam fi Itrab Al-Angham (The General Musical Guide in Rapt of Melodies).

Tawfiq Al-Yaziji was a writer, journalist and diplomat. In 1910, he began his journalism career in Tripoli by publishing Al-Ajiyal (The Generations) newspaper. When the Arab Government in Syria was declared after World War I, Al-Yaziji moved to Damascus and began publishing Syria Al-Jadida (The New Syria) newspaper in collaboration with Habib Kahala in 1918. He later replaced it with Al-Difa’ (The Defense) newspaper, which was published until the end of King Faisal’s rule after the Battle of Maysalun in 1920. He later immigrated to Egypt and worked for several newspapers before issuing Masr Al-Haditha (Modern Egypt) newspaper in 1927 and Al-Hada’iq (The Gardens) in 1930. In addition to being appointed to lead the Syrian Commission in Rio de Janeiro, he is also known for his lecture Aja’ib Arz Libnan (Mircales of the cedars of Lebanon).

Tawfiq Basha Dous was an Egyptian lawyer, politician and economist. Born in Asyut, Egypt, Dous majored in law before participating in the National Movement, during which time he served as one of the founders of Egypt’s Constitutional Party. In 1927, Dous was appointed Minister of Agriculture and, three years later, was appointed Minister of Transportation. In addition to politics, Dous also worked in the field of economics and lead the International Hotel Company. Among his prominent works include his book entitled Asrar Al-Irtiqa’ (The Secrets to Improvement).

Tawfiq Jirjis Al-Yaziji was an author and poet from Marmarita, Homs in Syria. After pursuing his studies in Arabic literature at the American University in Beirut, Al-Yaziji went on to work at the General Organization for the Investment and Development of the Euphrates Basin. His most notable poems include Ibnat Al-Fosoul (The Daughter of Seasons), Kasa’id min Al-Adab Al-Ajnabi (Poems of Foreign Literature), Nida’ Al-‘Om (The Mother’s Call), Batal Al-Nidal (The Hero of Struggle) and the collection entitled Marhala Wa Ajwa’ (Phase and Atmospheres).

Tawfiq Michael was an Egyptian voyager and journalist who wrote many articles in Al-Nour Al-Tawfiqi newspaper in Cairo. He was also known for founding Thamrit Al-Tawfiq, an organization which provided free education. Among his notable works is a book entitled Ghar’ib Al-Akhbar an Sharq Africia wa Zinjabar (Bizzare News about East Africa and Zanzibar), in which he tells the story of his 1899 tour around East Africa detailing the traditions and lifestyles of the people of Djibouti, Madagascar, Mozambique, Kfroria, Aden and Zanzibar.

Tawfiq bin Nasif Salloum was a Lutheran doctor, writer and poet. Born and raised in Hama, Syria, Salloum studied at the American University in Beirut, where he received a degree in both the sciences and medicine. He was also the recipient of an honorary degree in surgery, anatomy and chemistry. Salloum began his career in education at the Yashmazin and Batram schools in Lebanon, after which he moved back to Syria and worked in Damascus and Hama before ultimately becoming a doctor in the Ottoman and British Military. In 1945, Salloum was elected as head of the Anglican Communion and moved to Damascus, where he opened a private clinic. He wrote on several subjects, including religion and nationalism. His writings also included poetry, most of which dealt with subjects including flirtation, history and war. Among his most notable works is a collection of writings entitled Mokhtarat min Shi’ir wa Nathir Al-Doctor Tawfiq Salloum (Collection of Poems and Prose – Doctor Tawfiq Salloum).

Tawfiq Jubran Shamieh was a politician and a former Syrian minister. He received his elementary education at the Orthodox School in Damascus and later went on to pursue his higher education at the Syrian Evangelical College, or what is known today as the American University in Beirut. In addition to Arabic, Shamieh was also fluent in French, English, and Turkish. Prior to and during World War I, Shamieh worked for the Arab Movement and, as a result, was banished for his political activism. Throughout his political career, he participated in establishing the Syrian National Committee and contributed to the founding of the People’s Party. He was later elected a member of the Orthodox Communal Council in Damascus. In 1920, Shamieh was appointed Director of Politics and Publications in the Arab Government in Damascus under the leadership of King Faisal (1883 – 1993 AD) and served as a minister of many governments alongisde Taj Al-Din Al-Husni and the office of Shukri Al- Quwatli. He also served as governor under the rule of Mohammed Al-Abed.

Tawfiq bin Anastas Zuraiq was a writer and a journalist from Tripoli in the Levant. During World War I, he was detained by the Ottomans for accusations of criticizing the government through letters he published prior to the war in a newsletter issued by his brother, Anton, in America. He was sentenced at the office of customary war in Alia and was later hanged alongside his brother in Damascus.

Trivin bin Mousa Ibrahim Ghareeb was a writer and Archbishop of the Greek Orthodox Church from Lattakia, Syria. After completing his studies at the Khaliki College of Theology in Astana, Ghareeb was appointed as both a verger and a priest in 1914, and later Patriarch of Lattakia in 1933. He worked as a patriarchal agent of Antakia in Damascus for five years, during which time he contributed to the construction of several churches. Additionally, he also founded the Greek Orthodox National College in Lattakia and oversaw numerous charitable projects and schools. His most notable works include Kitab Al-Ta’leem Al-Masehe Al-Orthodoxi (The Christian Orthodox Book) and Al-Aqa’ed Al-Orthodoxia Iza’ Al-Protostantiniya (Orthodox versus Protestant  Dogmas).