The Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation
CHRISTIANS OF THE MIDDLE EAST:
A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
By Saliba Sarsar and Alexander Keller*
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Born in Bethlehem and reared in Nazareth over two thousand years ago, Jesus has touched every corner of our world.
Today, Christianity is the world’s most popular religion, with 2.2 billion adherents.
Even though Jesus' roots in the Holy Land are significant, Arab Christians are often overlooked in contemporary analyses of the religious and sociopolitical linkages of the Middle East. Christianity's presence there is not only little known but is in jeopardy as the number of Arab Christians diminishes.
Long persecuted, Christians in the Roman Empire were finally given approval in the form of Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity in 312 A.D., a watershed event that marked an important paradigmatic shift in religion within the Empire's walls. It swept people away from Paganism and ensured that Christianity became the modus vivendi of the entire Empire. Most importantly, it served as a precursor to the worldwide expansion of Christianity and, less fortunately, an abiding territorial struggle for the Holy Land despite relentlessaffirmations that God is on one side or another.
Although small in number, Christian communities remain throughout much of the region (see Table 1).Historically, Christians have played a vital role in the Arab National Movement as well as inadvancing their society's achievements in literature, art, and music, just to name a few. NotableChristians from the region include poet and philosopher Kahlil Gibran, author George Antonius, scholar Edward Said, Patriarch Michel Sabbah, diplomat Boutros Boutros Ghali, and musicians Fayrouz and Simon Shaheen.
Sadly, war has defined the lives of generations of those living in the land of Palestine and elsewhere around the Middle East, e.g., Iraq and Lebanon. Even so, life has not been a failure.Jesus of Nazareth teaches forgiveness. Until the day peacemakers arrive and humans at warforgive each other, all can rejoice in the glorious achievements wrought by Christians that,despite conflict, are wonderful seeds for harmony.
This select bibliography is a work in progress. It provides books and articles both by and on Middle Eastern Christians, and organizations dedicated to Christianity in the Middle East.It is presented in an effort to spread awareness about an influential community on the vergeof fading into obscurity.
*Saliba Sarsar, Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation,is Professor of Political Science and AssociateVice President of Academic Program Initiatives atMonmouth University. Alexander Keller is a student at Yale University. He co-developed this bibliography while he was a political science student at Monmouth University
Christianity in the Middle East: Books
Abu-Munshar, M. Islamic Jerusalem and Its Christians: A History of Tolerance and Tensions. London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2007.
Adams, S. Christian Family Guide Explains the Middle East Conflict. Waltham: Alpha, 2003.
Andrew, B. and A. Janssen. Light Force: A Stirring Account of the Church Caught in the Middle East Crossfire. Ada: Baker Publishing Group, 2005.
Apostolov, M. The Christian Muslim Frontier: A Zone of Contact, Conflict or Cooperation. New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003.
Ascalone, E. Mesopotamia: Assyrians, Sumerians, Babylonians. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Atiya, A. S. A History of Eastern Christianity. Germantown: Periodicals Service Company, 1980.
Bailey, B. J., and J. M. Bailey. Who Are the Christians in the Middle East? Grand Rapids: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003.
Betts, R. B. Christians in the Arab East: A Political Study. Edinburgh: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981.
Chacour, E. Blood Brothers. Grand Rapids: Chosen Books, 1984.
Chamie, J. Religion and Fertility: Arab Christian-Muslim Differentials. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Courbage, Y. and P. Fargues. Christians and Jews under Islam. London: I.B. Tauris, 1998.
Cragg, K. The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East. Edinburgh: Westminster John Knox Press, 1991.
Cragg, K. Muhammad and the Christian: A Question of Response. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1999.
Dalrymple, W. From the Holy Mountain: A Journey among the Christians of the Middle East. New York: Henry Holt & Company, Incorporated, 1999.
Dass, R. F. The Middle East Christians: The Untold Story. Oak Park, MI: American Middle East Christian Congress, n.d.
Edbury, P. W. Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Ginkel, J. J. Van, and T. M. Van Lint. Redefining Christian Identity: Cultural Interaction in the Middle East since the Rise of Islam. Leuven: Peeters Publishing, 2006.
Griffith, S. H. The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
Haddad, R. M. Syrian Christians in Muslim Society: An Interpretation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.
Haddad, R. M. Syrian Christians in Muslim Society: An Interpretation. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1981.
Hoggard, B. Crusader Castles: Christian Fortresses in the Middle East. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2003.
Holt, P.M. The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Old Tappan: Longman, 1989.
Horner, N. A Guide to Christian Churches in the Middle East: Present-Day Christianity in the Middle East and North Africa. Elkhart: Mennonite Board of Missions, 1989.
Hourani, A. Minorities in the Arab World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947.
Innemee, K. C. Ecclesiastical Dress in the Medieval Near East. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 1992.
Joseph, J. Muslim-Christian Relations and Intra-Christian Rivalries in the Middle East: The Case of the Jacobites in an Age of Transition. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983.
Karabell, Z. Peace Be Upon You: Fourteen Centuries of Muslim, Christian, and Jewish Coexistence in the Middle East. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2007.
Karen, A. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York: Random House, 1997.
Kimball, C. Angel of Vision: Christians and the Middle East. Cincinnati: Friendship Press, 1992.
Leroy, J. and P. Collin. Monks and Monasteries of the Near East. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2004.
Lewis, B. The Multiple Identities of the Middle East. New York: Schocken Books, Incorporated, 2001.
Maalouf, A. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. New York: Schocken Books, 1989.
MacEvitt, C. The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
Makdisi, U. Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.
Maltz, S. The Land of Many Names: Towards a Christian Understanding of the Middle Eastern Conflict. Colorado Springs: Authentic, 2005.
Mansour, A. Narrow Gate Churches: The Christian Presence in the Holy Land under Muslim and Jewish Rule. Pasadena: Hope Publishing House, 2004.
Meinardus, O. F. A. Christians in Egypt: Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant Communities Past and Present. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2006.
Moucarry, C. G. The Prophet & the Messiah: An Arab Christian’s Perspective on Islam & Christianity. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2002.
Munayer, S. J. The Ethnic Identity of Palestinian Arab Christian Adolescents in Israel. Oxford: Oxford Center for Mission Studies and University of Wales, 2000.
Pacini, A. Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East: The Challenge of the Future. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Phillips, J. and M. Hoch. The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
Raheb, M. I Am a Palestinian Christian. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 1995.
Rittner, C. and S. D. Smith. No Going Back: Letters to Pope Benedict XVI on the Holocaust, Jewish-Christian Relations & Israel. London: Quill Press in Association with the Holocaust Center, 2009.
Sennott, C. M. The Body and the Blood: The Middle East’s Vanishing Christians and the Possibility for Peace. New York: Public Affairs, 2002.
Shorrosh, A. Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab’s View of Islam. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2001.
Snell, D C. Flight and Freedom in the Ancient Near East. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2001.
St. John, B. Legends of the Christian East. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2002.
Waterfield, R. E. Christians in Persia. New York: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
Christianity in the Middle East: Articles
Beaumont, M. I. “Early Christian Interpretation of the Qur’an.” Transformation 22.4 (Oct. 2005): 195-203.
“Christian Art in Oriental Literatures: Greek, Syriac and Coptic Sources from the 4th to the 7th Century.” American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter Winter 2008: 24-25.
“Christianity in the Middle East.” Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity 21.1 (Jan. 2008): 57-57.
“Christianity in the Middle East.” Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity 20.8 (Oct. 2007): 43-43.
“Christianity in the Middle East.” Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity 20.2 (Mar. 2007): 55-55.
“Christianity in the Middle East.” Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity 19.10 (Dec. 2006): 53-53.
“Christianity in the Middle East.” Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity 19.3 (Apr. 2006): 49-49.
Fuller, G. E. “A World Without ISLAM.” Foreign Policy 164 (Jan. 2008): 46-53.
Ghanea, N. “Human Rights of Religious Minorities and of Women in the Middle East.” Human Rights Quarterly 26.3 (Aug. 2004): 705-729.
“Heaven on Earth: The Role of Architectural Decoration in the Creation of Sacred Space in Early Byzantine Palestine and Arabia.” American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter Winter 2008: 24-24.
Hulsman, C. “The Peacebuilding Prince.” Christianity Today 13 Feb. 2008. 23 Feb. 2008. https://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2008/february/27.64.html.
Marsh, L. “Palestinian Christianity-A Study in Religion and Politics.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 5.2 (2005): 147-166.
Marten, M. “Anglican and Presbyterian Presence and Theology in the Holy Land.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 5.2 (2005): 182-199.
Matar, N. “Christian Mysticism in the Ottoman Empire: The Case of Hindiyya the Nun, 1720-1798.” Muslim World 95.2 (Apr. 2005): 265-278.
McCallum, F. “The Political Role of the Patriarch in the Contemporary Middle East.” Middle Eastern Studies 43.6 (Nov. 2007): 923-940.
“Middle East Patriarchs Deplore Insecurity.” America 19 Dec. 2005: 7-7.
Neyzi, L. “Fragmented in Space: The Oral History Narrative of an Arab Christian from Antioch, Turkey.” Global Networks 4.3 (July 2004): 285-297.
O’Mahony, A. “Christianity and Jerusalem: Religion, Politics and Theology in the Modern Holy Land.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 5.2 (2005): 86-102.
O’Mahony, A. “The Vatican, Jerusalem, the State of Israel, and Christianity in the Holy Land.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 5.2 (2005): 123-146.
“Pope Urges Middle East Christians to Be Steadfast.” America (Feb. 19, 2007): 6-6.
Racionzer, L. M. “Christianity in Modern Israel.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 5.2 (2005): 167-181.
Shafik, S. S. “The Suffering Church.” Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity 18.10 (Dec. 2005): 58-58.
Assyrian Christians: Books
Austin, H.H. Baqubah Refugee Camp: An Account of Work on Behalf of the Persecuted Assyrian Christians. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Badger, G. P. The Nestorians and their Rituals with the Narrative of a Mission to Mesopotamia and Coordistan in 1842 to 1844 Part Two. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing Company, 2004.
Baumer, C, and M. Dinkha. The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.
Campbell, E. Y. Yesterday’s Children: Growing Up Assyrian in Persia. Bangor: Booklocker.com, Incorporated, 2007.
Coakley, J. F. The Church of the East and the Church of England: A History of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Assyrian Mission. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Coan, F. Missionary Life in the Middle East. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Cutts, E. L. Christians under the Crescent in Asia. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Emhardt, W. C. and G. M. Lamsa. The Oldest Christian People. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 1970.
Heazell, F.N. Kurds and Christians. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2004.
Joseph, J. Modern Assyrians of the Middle East: Encounters with Western Christian Missions, Archaeologists, and Colonial Power. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2000.
Layard, H. A. Nineveh and Its Remains. Westport: Praeger, 1970.
Shahbaz, Y. H. The Rage of Islam: An Account of the Massacres of Christians by the Turks in Persia. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Stafford, R.S. The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq. London: Kegan Paul International Limited, 2004.
Stewart, J. Nestorian Missionary Enterprise: The Story of a Church on Fire. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Wigram, W.A. An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian Church. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2004.
Chaldean Christians: Articles
Allbritton, C. and S. Appleton. “Iraq’s Persecuted Christians.” Time (Sept. 27 2004): 44-45.
Begos, K. “Other Baghdad Battles Ahead for Christians.” Christianity Today (Sept. 2003): 35-36.
“Christians in Iraq are in Peril, Church Leader Warns.” Christian Century (July 10, 2007): 16-16.
Coday, D. “Iraqi Christians Shut Out of Civil Structures, Bishops Say.” National Catholic Reporter (Oct. 3, 2003): 6.
Cohn, J. “Majority Retort.” New Republic 228.13 (Apr. 2003): 11-14.
Goffe, L. “Chaldeans’ USA.” Middle East (Nov. 1999): 50.
Hakim-Larson, J. et al. “Counseling Arab and Chaldean American Families.” Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29.4 (Oct. 2007): 301-321.
“Iranian Catholics Free, but Keep Low Profile.” America (Oct. 18,2004): 5-5.
Kosterlitz, J. “Calling Attention to Iraq’s Christians.” National Journal (Dec. 8, 2007): 60-60.
Kulish, N. “Wrong Pigeonhole? Chaldeans, Assyrians Are Vexed With Census.” Wall Street Journal (Mar. 12 2001): Eastern ed.: A1.
Lang, R. “Fearing War, Iraqi Christians Ask Prayers.” Christian Century (Dec. 4, 2002): 13.
Lehman, M. “Death by Sanctions.” Christianity Today (Oct. 2, 2002): 29.
O’Mahony, A. “The Chaldean Catholic Church: The Politics of Church-State Relations in Modern Iraq.” Heythrop Journal 45.4 (Oct. 2004): 435-450.
O’Mahony, A. “Christianity in Modern Iraq.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 4.2 (2004): 121-142.
Rubin, A. J. “2,000-Year-Old Christian Community in Iraq Gains a Spiritual First in Baghdad.” New York Times (Nov 5. 2007).
Seddon, M. “A Forgotten Minority.” New Statesman (Jan. 24, 2005).
Strickert, F. “An Iraqi Easter Filled With Uncertainty.” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (June 2003): 54.
Tavernise, S. “In a Muslim City in Iraq, a Christian Group Enjoys Its Lively Quarter.” New York Times (May 23, 2003): A13.
Veenker, J. “Sanctions Missing the Mark.” Christianity Today (June 12, 2000): 28.
Coptic Christians: Books
Badawy, A. Coptic Art and Archaeology: The Art of Christian Egyptians from the Late Antique to the Middle Ages. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1978.
Baginski, A. and A. Tidhar. Textiles from Egypt: 4th-13th Centuries. Tel Aviv: Tavait Press, 1980.
Birger, A. P. Gnosticism and Christianity in Roman and Coptic Egypt. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
Butler, A. J. The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt: Volume 1. Boston: Adamant Media Corporation, 2002.
Butler, A. J. The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt: Volume 2. Boston: Adamant Media Corporation, 2002.
Cannuyer, C. Coptic Egypt: The Christians of the Nile. New York: Abrams, 2001.
Capuani, M., O. F.A. Meinardus, and M.-H. Rutschowscaya. Christian Egypt: Coptic Art and Monuments through Two Millennia. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2002.
Carroll, D. L. Looms and Textiles of the Copts: First Millennium Egyptian Textiles in the Carl Austin Rietz Collection of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, 1989.
Coptic Art and Culture. Cairo: Shouhdy Publishing House, 1987.
Davis, S. J. The Early Coptic Papacy: The Egyptian Church and Its Leadership in Late Antiquity. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2005.
Doorn-Harder, P. Van. Contemporary Coptic Nuns. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
Du Bourget, P. The Art of the Copts. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 1971.
Fares, L. Coptic Egypt: Impacting World Peace. Lincoln: IUniverse, 2003.
Fares, L. Rising from the East: Coptic Praises. Frederick: PublishAmerica, 2006.
Griggs, C. W. Early Egyptian Christianity: From Its Origins to 451 CE. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2000.
Gruber, M. and M. M. Ransil. Sacrifice in the Desert: A Study of an Egyptian Minority through the Prism of Coptic Monasticism. Lanham: University Press of America, 2003.
Guirguis, M. An Armenian Artist in Ottoman Cairo: Yuhanna Al-Armani and His Coptic Icons. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2008.
Guirguis, M. and N. Van Doorn-Harder. The Emergence of the Modern Coptic Papacy. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2008.
Hamilton, A. The Copts and the West 1439-1822: The European Discovery of the Egyptian Church. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Hasan, S. S. Christians versus Muslims in Modern Egypt: The Century-Long Struggle for Coptic Equality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Hondelink, H. Beyond the Pharaohs: Egypt and the Copts in the 2nd to 7th Centuries A.D. Providence: Rhode Island School of Design, 1990.
Kamil, J. Christianity in the Land of the Pharaohs: The Coptic Orthodox Church. Oxford: Taylor & Francis, Incorporated, 2002.
Kamil, J. Coptic Egypt: A History and Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1993.
Maguire, E. D. Weavings from Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Egypt: The Rich Life and the Dance. Urbana and Chicago: Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne, 1999.
Maguire, E. D., H. P. Maguire, and M. J. Duncan-Flowers. Art and Holy Powers in the Early Christian House. Urbana and Chicago: Krannert Art Museum in association with the University of Illinois Press, 1989.
Meinardus, O. F. A. Coptic Saints and Pilgrimages. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2007.
Meinardus, O. F. A. Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2007.
Meyer, M. W., and R. Smith. Ancient Christian Magic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Patrick, T. H. Traditional Egyptian Christianity: A History of the Coptic Orthodox Church. N.p.: Fisher Park Press, 1996.
Rutschowscaya, M.-H. Coptic Fabrics. Paris: Adam Biro, 1990.
Shurinova, R. Coptic Textiles: Collection of Coptic Textiles. Leningrad: State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, 1967.
Stauffer, A. Textiles of Late Antiquity. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995.
Thomas, T. K. Textiles from Medieval Egypt, A.D. 300-1300. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1990.
Van Doorn-Harder, P. Contemporary Coptic Nuns. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
Wakin, E. A Lonely Minority: The Modern Story of Egypt’s Copts. New York: Backinprint.com, 2000.
Watson, J. H. Among the Copts. Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2000.
Wiens, C. Y. and Y. L. Sawiris. Coptic Life in Egypt. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2003.
Wilfong, T. G. Women of Jeme: Lives in a Coptic Town in Late Antique Egypt. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003.
Coptic Christians: Articles
Armanios, F. and B. Ergene. “A Christian Martyr under Mamluk Justice: The Trials of Salī b (d. 1512) according to Coptic and Muslim Sources.” Muslim World 96.1 (Jan. 2006): 115-144.
“A Bit More Religious Freedom.” Economist (Feb. 16, 2008): 54-55.
Botros, G. “Religious Identity as an Historical Narrative: Coptic Orthodox Immigrant Churches and the Representation of History.” Journal of Historical Sociology 19.2 (June 2006): 174-201.
Coury, R. M. “Christians versus Muslims in Modem Egypt: The Century-Long Struggle for Coptic Equality.” American Historical Review 110.2 (Apr. 2005): 591-591.
Dalrymple, W. “Copts & Brothers.” New Statesman (Dec. 17, 2007): 38-41.
Davis, S. J. “Fashioning a Divine Body: Coptic Christology and Ritualized Dress.” Harvard Theological Review 98.3 (July 2005): 335-366.
“Egypt’s Christian Communities Threatened.” America (May 8, 2006): 7-7.
Golia, M. “Remembrance of Things Forgotten.” Middle East (May 2007): 60-62.
“Good Copts, Sad Copts.” Economist (Jan. 1, 2005): 33-33.
Hatina, M. “In Search of Authenticity: A Coptic Perception.” Middle Eastern Studies 42.1 (Jan. 2006): 49-65.
Henderson, R. “The Egyptian Coptic Christians: The Conflict between Identity and Equality.” Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations 16.2 (Apr. 2005): 155-166.
Horn, C. B. “Mary between Bible and Qur’an: Soundings into the Transmission and Reception History of the Protoevangelium of James on the Basis of Selected Literary Sources in Coptic and Copto-Arabic and of Art-Historical Evidence Pertaining to Egypt.” Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations 18.4 (Oct. 2007): 509-538.
Ibrahim, S. E. “Christians Oppressed.” Wall Street Journal (Nov. 18, 2005): Eastern ed.: A16.
Kawatoko, M. “Multi-disciplinary Approaches to the Islamic Period in Egypt and the Red Sea Coast.” Antiquity 79.306 (Dec. 2005): 844-857.
Mayton, J. “A Dying Language.” Middle East (Apr. 2006): 60-61.
O’Mahony, A. “Tradition at the Heart of Renewal: the Coptic Orthodox Church and Monasticism in Modern Egypt.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 7.3 (2007): 164-178.
“Religious Tension.” Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social & Cultural Series 41.12 (Dec. 2004): 16034-13035.
Rowe, P. S. “Neo-millet Systems and Transnational Religious Movements: The ‘Humayun’ Decrees and Church Construction in Egypt.” Journal of Church & State 49.2 (Spring 2007): 329-350.
Rowell, G. “New Perspectives on Monasticism.” International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 7.3 (2007): 162-163.
Sedra, P. D. “John Lieder and his Mission in Egypt: The Evangelical Ethos at Work Among Nineteenth-Century Copts.” Journal of Religious History 28.3 (Oct. 2004): 219-239.
Spencer, R. “Islam Insulted in Egypt: One Stabbed, Three Killed.” Human Events (Oct. 31,2005): 16-16.
Suermann, H. “The Coptic Martyrdom of John Phanijōit. Assimilation and Conversion to Islam in the Thirteenth-century Egypt.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 58.2 (Apr. 2007): 333-334.
Zaborowski, J. “From Coptic to Arabic in Medieval Egypt.” Medieval Encounters 14.1 (2008): 15-40.
Maronite Christians: Books
Abraham, A. J. Lebanon at Mid-Century: Maronite-Druze Relations in Lebanon, 1840-1860: A Prelude to Arab Nationalism. Lanham: University Press of America, 1981.
Churchill, C. H. The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2004.
Churchill, C. H. Mount Lebanon: The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule, Volume 4. Reading: Garnet Publishing, Limited, 1994.
Eisenberg, L. Z. My Enemy’s Enemy: Lebanon in the Early Zionist Imagination, 1900-1948. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994.
Fawaz, L. T. An Occasion for War: Civil Conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
Grafton, D. The Christians of Lebanon: Political Rights in Islamic Law. London: I.B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2004.
Leeuwen, R. Van. Notables and Clergy in Mount Lebanon: The Khazin Sheikhs and the Maronite Church, 1736-1840. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, Incorporated, 1994.
Moosa, M. The Maronites in History. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, LLC., 2005.
Salim, A. J. Captivated by Your Teachings: A Resource Book for Adult Maronite Catholics. Tuscon: E.T. Nedder Publishing, 2001.
Schulze, K. E. Israel’s Covert Diplomacy in Lebanon. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
Maronite Christians: Articles
Abraham, A.J. “Notables & Clergy in Mount Lebanon: The Khazin Sheikhs & the Maronite Church (1736-1840).” Journal of Third World Studies 12.2 (Fall 1995): 531-532.
Baroudi, S. E. “Divergent Perspectives among Lebanon’s Maronites during the 1958 Crisis.” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 15.1 (Spring 2006): 5-28.
“A Day in the Life of a Married Maronite Priest.” America (Jan. 16, 2006): 7-7.
Glain, S. J. “Lebanese Christian Leader Sends a Signal of Independence to Syria.” Wall Street Journal (May 3, 2001): Eastern ed., A15.
Haddad, S. “The Maronite Legacy and the Drive for Preeminence in Lebanese Politics.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 22.2 (Oct. 2002): 317-333.
Haddad, S. “The Political Transformation of the Maronites of Lebanon: From Dominance to Accommodation.” Nationalism & Ethnic Politics 8.2 (Summer 2002): 27.
Haddad, S. “A Survey of Maronite Christian Socio-Political Attitudes in Postwar Lebanon.” Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations 12.4 (Oct. 2001): 465-479.
Hancock, J. “Lebanon: A Conflict of Minorities.” Asian Affairs 18.1 (Feb. 1987): 30.
Herzstein, R. “The Foundation of the Saint-Joseph University of Beirut: The Teaching of the Maronites by the Second Jesuit Mission in the Levant.” Middle Eastern Studies 43.5 (Sept. 2007): 749-759.
Hourani, G. G., and A. B. Habchi. “The Maronite Eremitical Tradition: A Contemporary Revival.” Heythrop Journal 45.4 (Oct. 2004): 451-465.
Kaufman, A. “Phoenicianism: The Formation of an Identity in Lebanon in 1920.” Middle Eastern Studies 37.1 (Jan. 2001): 173.
Kaufman, A. “‘Tell Us Our History’: Charles Corm, Mount Lebanon and Lebanese Nationalism.” Middle Eastern Studies 40.3 (May 2004): 1-28.
Khashan, H. “The Political Values of Lebanese Maronite College Students.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 34.4 (Dec. 1990): 723-744.
Lamprecht, P. “Clash of Churches.” Christianity Today (Nov. 2006): 21-21.
“Lebanese Bishops Criticize Hezbollah, President.” America (Oct. 2, 2006): 6-6.
“Lebanese Catholics Mourn Slain Leader.” America 198.1 (Jan. 2008): 7-7.
“Lebanese Catholics Plead for Timely Elections.” America (Oct. 8, 2007): 7-7.
Loyola, Mario. “Land of Cedars and Sorrow.” National Review (Apr. 16, 2007): 34-38.
Rabil, R. G. “The Maronites and Syrian Withdrawal: From ‘Isolationists’ to ‘Traitors.'” Middle East Policy 8.3 (Sept. 2001): 23.
Ramsay, A. “The Lebanon: Old Bottle – New Vintage?” Contemporary Review 287.1676 (Sept. 2005): 135-141.
Yeranian, E. “Christians in Lebanon See Hopes, Numbers Diminish.”
Christian Science Monitor (May 9, 1997): 7.
Zisser, E. “The Maronites, Lebanon and the State of Israel: Early Contacts.”
Middle Eastern Studies 31.4 (Oct. 1995): 889.
Palestinian Christians: Books
Abu El-Assal, R. Caught in Between: The Extraordinary Story of an Arab Palestinian
Christian Israeli. London: SPCK, 1999.
Aburish, S. K. The Forgotten Faithful: The Christians of the Holy Land. London:
Quartet Books, 1993.
Antonius, G. The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement.
New York: Capricorn Books, 1965.
Appleby, S. Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation.
New York: Rowan and Littlefield, 1998.
Ateek, N.S. A Palestinian Christian Cry for Reconciliation. Maryknoll, NY:
Orbis Books, 2008.
Ateek, N. S. Justice and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation.
12th ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2001.
Ateek, N.S., C. Duaybis, and M. Schrader (Eds.) Jerusalem, What Makes for Peace!
A Palestinian Christian Contribution to Peacemaking. London: Melisende, 1997.
Ateek, N.S. and M. Prior (Eds.), Holy Land – Hollow Jubilee: God, Justice and
the Palestinians. Melisende, London, 1999.
Ateek, N.S., H.Rantisi, and K. Wilkens, (Eds.) Our Story-The Palestinians, Sabeel,
Ateek, N. et al. (Eds.) Jerusalem, What Makes for Peace. (pp.236-41). London:
Ateek, N., M. H. Ellis, and R. Ruether, Faith and the Intifada: Palestinian Christian
Voices. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1992.
Awad, A. Through the Eyes of the Victims: The Story of the Arab-Israeli Conflict.
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Aghazarian, A., B.Sabella and A. Safieh “Christian Voices from The Holy Land:
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Hanna, A. “Putting the Record Straight.” The Jerusalem Times. (2003a) at
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Sabella, B. “The Situation of Palestinian Christians: Some Food for Thought” (2004) at
Syriac Christians: Books
Barsoum, A. I. and M. Matti. History of Syriac Literature and Sciences. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2005.
Baum, W. and D. Winkler. The Apostolic Churches of the East: A History of the Nestorian Church. London: Taylor & Francis, Incorporated, 2003.
Beggiani, S. J. Introduction to Eastern Christian Spirituality: The Syriac Tradition. Scranton: University of Scranton Press, 1991.
Book of Crumbs: An Anthology of Syriac Texts. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Brock, S. From Heaven: Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy. London: Ashgate Publishing, 2006.
Brock, S. P., and A. Eugene. Bible in the Syriac Tradition: Translated from English into Syriac by Eugene Aydin. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2002.
Clavis S: A Key to the Ancient Syriac Peshitto Version of the Gospels. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2005.
Colless, B. E. Wisdom of the Pearlers: An Anthology of Syriac Christian Mysticism. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2008.
Cureton, W. Remains of a Very Ancient Recension of the Four Gospels in Syriac. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2005.
Gwilliam, G.H. Materials for the Criticism of the Syriac Peshitto New Testament. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2006.
Karim, C. A. Symbols of the Cross in the Writings of the Early Syriac Fathers. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2004.
Lange, C. The Portrayal of Christ in the Syriac Commentary on the Diatessaron. Leuven: Peeters Publishers, 2005.
Murray, R. Symbols of Church and Kingdom: A Study in Early Syriac Tradition. Edinburgh: T&T. Clark Publishers, 2006.
Nir, R. Destruction of Jerusalem and the Idea of Redemption in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.
O’Leary, D. Syriac Church and Fathers. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2002.
Reinink, G.J. Syriac Christianity under Late Sasanian and Early Islamic Rule. London: Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2005.
Rooy, H.F. Van. Studies on the Syriac Apocryphal Psalms. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Weitzman, M. P., A. Rapoport-Albert, and G. Greenberg. From Judaism to Christianity: Studies in the Hebrew and Syriac Bible. NY: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Syriac Christians: Articles
Cunneen, S. “The Mary We Never Knew.” Commonweal 134.22 (Dec. 2007): 10-12.
Christianity in the Middle East: Institutes and Organizations
Al-Bushra was created by Rev. Labib Kobti from the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem (The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Jerusalem) who now serves the Arab American Roman Catholic Community in California, USA. In Al-Bushra you can find many different items that help you explore the heritage, history, traditions, theology, and current events of the people in the Middle East; as well, you can find the stands of the Vatican and Head of Christian Communities over human-rights issues in the Middle East.https://www.al-bushra.org/.
American Middle East Christians’ Congress (AMECC) is an extension of the Arab American and Chaldean Forum that was established in 1991. Its mission is to bring together the diverse and unique Middle East Christian communities in the United States in the fields of heritage, education, culture, and humanity. https://www.makedonija.tv/middle_east_christians.htm.
American Middle Eastern Christian Association is a California non-profit public benefit corporation with the objectives of celebrating the traditions and heritage of the Middle Eastern Christians in the U.S., strengthening the ties of affiliation with Christians living in the U.S. and abroad, and educating the public about the beliefs, history, tradition, challenges, and heritage of Middle Eastern Christians.
Caritas Jerusalem is a Jerusalem-based humanitarian/developmental organization that represents the socio-pastoral services of the Catholic Church in the Holy Land. It was founded in 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. Over the years, CJ has grown and assumed increasing responsibilities, both in terms of its program base and operational capability. Total yearly beneficiaries now number over 30,000 individuals, representing needy families in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation (HCEF) was established to support the Mother Church-the living Christian presence in the Holy Land. HCEF grew out of collaboration between Sir Rateb Y. Rabie, KCHS, a Palestinian-American Christian, and Father Emil Salayta, a Jordanian priest serving in Palestine. The two believed, correctly, that increased awareness on the part of Christians in Western countries as to the desperate situation of their fellow Christians in the Holy Land would lead many Western Christians to reach out to help those living stones of the early Church. The embodiment of that vision is HCEF, incorporated in 1999 under Section 501(c) (3) of the United States Internal Revue Code as a non-profit organization.
A number of distinguished individuals serve on HCEF’s Board of Directors and Advisory Board. The two boards include members of the clergy and laity of the three Christian traditions (Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant) from both the Holy Land and the West. HCEF serves communities and individuals of all of the Christian denominations in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel.
Mission: HCEF is committed to the presence and well-being of Arab Christians in the Holy Land and to developing the bonds of solidarity between them and their fellow Christians elsewhere in the world.
In witness to the teachings of our Savior Jesus Christ, HCEF members seek to:
- Inform people everywhere of the presence of Arab Christians in the Holy Land and remind Christians in other countries of their moral obligation to support the Christians who constitute the “Mother Church”;
- Build community between Arab Christians and other Christians through pilgrimages, publications, and communication;
- Develop bonds of Christian solidarity through church-to-church, family-to-family, and person-to-person partnerships to facilitate future cooperation;
- Promote peace, justice, and reconciliation in the Holy Land by removing the causes of human suffering so as to replace despair with hope, fear with security, and humiliation with human dignity;
- Undertake projects to provide better living conditions for the Arab Christians in the Holy Land, by creating employment; supporting education; improving the lives of the elderly; and building and rehabilitating homes.
Contact Information: HCEF, 6935 Wisconsin Ave., Suite 214, Bethesda, MD 20815; (301) 951 9400; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.hcef.org.
International Maronite Foundation is a non-profit California corporation that exists to promote the welfare and advancement of the Maronites of the world. Existing under the patronage of the Maronite Patriarch, it has pledged to the Patriarch loyalty and commitment to his guidance while supporting his efforts on behalf of Lebanese of all faiths and his concern for peace, justice and the safeguard of freedom and human rights. In supporting this effort, the Foundation works to strengthen the role of the patriarchy, relationships among Maronites both in Lebanon and outside, and actively promotes and works for the perpetuation of the rich heritage among Maronites all over the world. https://www.maronet.org/.
Middle East Christian Association (MECA) sought to start Offices around the world merely to spread the message among Christians of Middle Eastern origins to unite and strive for their rights to equal citizenship and freedom of worship in their homelands. https://meca-humanrights.com/en/index.asp.
Sabeel is an ecumenical grassroots liberation theology movement among Palestinian Christians. Inspired by the life and teaching of Jesus Christ, this liberation theology seeks to deepen the faith of Palestinian Christians, to promote unity among them toward social action. Sabeel strives to develop a spirituality based on love, justice, peace, nonviolence, liberation and reconciliation for the different national and faith communities. The word “Sabeel” is Arabic for ‘the way’ and also a ‘channel’ or ‘spring’ of life-giving water. https://www.sabeel.org/.
SAT-7 is a Christian satellite television station by and for the people of the Middle East and North Africa. The vision is to see a growing Church, confident in Christian faith and witness, serving the community and contributing to the good of society and culture. The mission is to provide the churches and Christians of the Middle East and North Africa an opportunity to witness to Jesus Christ through inspirational, informative, and educational television services. https://www.sat7.org/en-US.
Télé Lumière and Noursat broadcast religious and cultural events and present programs that promote the principles of justice love, freedom, and human rights, values called for by Christianity everywhere. They have an ecumenical mission, not political. They advance multi-cultural understanding and religious dialogue through programs that strengthen peace, target coexistence, and oppose immorality, violence, and terrorism. https://www.telelumiere.com/eng/generalsub.html.
U.S. Copts Association is a non-profit organization that publishes https://www.copts.net, https://www.copts.com, and the Coptic Daily Digest in both English and Arabic, as educational resources on matters of democracy, religious freedom and human rights in the Middle East, specifically focusing on Egypt and the treatment of the Coptic minority. These tools serve as vehicles for the documentation of the discrimination and human rights violations faced by the Coptic minority within their homeland.
Table 1: Christians of the Middle East
According to Christian community leaders, Methodists and members of other Protestant denominations account for the largest numbers of non-Muslims, followed by Roman Catholics and Seventh-day Adventists. There are three thousand members of evangelical churches (mostly in the Kabylie region) and three hundred Catholics. A significant proportion of the country’s Christian alien residents are students and illegal immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa seeking to reach Europe; their numbers are difficult to estimate.**
9% Coptic 1% Other*
According to U.N. figures, 300,000 Christians live in the country, the majority of whom are ethnic Armenians. There are Protestant denominations, including evangelical religious groups. Christian groups outside the country estimate the size of the Protestant Christian community to be less than 10,000, although many Protestant Christians reportedly practice in secret. Unofficial estimates for the Assyrian Christian population are between 10,000 and 20,000. Sabean-Mandaeans number 5,000 to 10,000 persons.**
Current Estimates at under 1 million. (Chaldean majority)**
note: includes about 187,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem*
1.7% Arab Christian, 0.4% Other Christian*
Approx. 150-200 Christian Citizens**
Approx. 400,000 total Christians (mostly expats)**
Approx. 100-200 Anglican Christians and 80 Orthodox (Christianity essentially limited to the city of Tripoli)**
Christians (expats) number approx. 5,000.**
Non-Ibadhi and non-Sunni Muslims together constitute less than 5 percent of the population and include various groups of Shi’a Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Christians. Christian communities are centered in the major urban areas of Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah and are represented by Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and various Protestant congregations. These groups tend to organize along linguistic and ethnic lines. More than 50 different Christian groups, fellowships, and assemblies are active in the Muscat metropolitan area.**
(West Bank and Gaza Strip)
note: In addition, there are about 187,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2008 est.)*
Roman Catholics (80,000), Eastern and Greek Orthodox, Anglicans (10,000), Copts (3,000), and other Protestants.**
In addition to European and North American Christians, there are Christian East Africans, Indians, Pakistanis, Lebanese, Syrians, and Palestinians residing in the country, including as many as one million Roman Catholics. Ninety percent of the Filipino community is Christian.**
5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)*
The Christian community, composed of foreign residents and a small group of native-born citizens of European or Arab descent, numbers 25,000 and is dispersed throughout the country.**
Approximately 65,000 Armenian Orthodox Christians; and up to 4,000 Greek Orthodox Christians; 15,000 Syrian Orthodox (Syriac) Christians; 3,300 Jehovah’s Witnesses; 3,000 Protestants; and small, undetermined numbers of Bulgarian, Chaldean, Nestorian, Georgian, Roman Catholic, and Maronite Christians.**
United Arab Emirates
There are 3,000 Christians throughout the country, most of whom are refugees or temporary foreign residents.**
*CIA World Factbook, 2009.
**State Department International Religious Freedom Report, 2007-2008.
The Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation (HCEF)
6935 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 518 • Bethesda, MD 20815• 301 951 9400; ww.hcef.org